Remember that we are discussing complex variables and you should review the studies directly. But here is what Dr. Johnson found in his review of the police studies.
Epidemic use of force: In 2015 police use of force caused death for 0.00031% of the US population. Criminals killed 16.3 times more deaths than police. 30.5% more deaths were caused by falls and 34.2% more deaths were caused by motor vehicles than by police. The medical profession is responsible for the vast number of deaths. Compare the 990 police caused deaths with the 251,454 deaths caused by medical errors!
Deaths by police are on the rise: Center for Disease Control shows a decline from 2012-2014 with an average decline of 3.3% per year. These deaths ar only a fraction of what it was in previous decades.
Police kill unarmed people: Armed cannot mean only citizens with a gun or knife. If unarmed can mean citizens on the attack with other than a gun or knife, then unarmed citizens kill 3,000 people a year. That definition, ignoring motor vehicles, clubs, and hands used by assailants means 11% of police killed were by unarmed citizens and 9.3 percent of those killed by police were â€œunarmedâ€.
Police target African-American men: Johnson reports â€œâ€¦258 of the 990 individuals killed by the police in 2015 were African â€“ American , all but 10 of which were male. So that means 25% of those who died from police use of force in 2015 were African American men and 1% were African American women. On the other hand, 468 (47.3%) of those killed by police in 2015 were White (non-Latino) males and 26 (2.6%) were white (non-Latino) females. In other words, almost twice as many non-Latino Whites died from police use of force as did African-Americansâ€ (page 7).
Police Use of Lethal Fore disproportionately Targets African American Men: Using CDC and the Washington Post data, Johnson reports African American men are 14.4 time more likely to die in a traffic accident than from the police. They are 27.4 times more likely to be murdered than killed by police.
Implicit Bias by Police drives Deadly Force: Citing a review of 46 research studies involving 5,600 subjects, Johnson reported an absence of research findings of racially prejudicial behavior. He pointed out that the research showed police drew their guns, fired or accidently shot White suspects more than African American suspects.
Excessive Force is linked to a lack of Diversity of Police Forces: The US Dept. of Justice reported 12.2 % of police are African American, 11.6 % are Hispanic and 3.5% are other non-white. The US Census Bureau reports African Americans make up 12.6% of our population, and Hispanics are 16.3% of the US population. Also, many of the major cities have police forces that are a majority non-white. If it is not a lack of diversity, what is associated with police use of force and the number of police assaulted or murdered? Johnson show it is the level of violent crime in the area.
Next blog I will tell you what Dr. Johnson concluded.