Continuing the research regarding police use of force, per paper by Richard Johnson see prior blogs.
Excessive Force is linked to a lack of Diversity of Police Forces: The US Dept. of Justice reported 12.2 % of police are African American, 11.6 % are Hispanic and 3.5% are other non-white. The US Census Bureau reports African Americans make up 12.6% of our population, and Hispanics are 16.3% of the US population. Also, many of the major cities have police forces that are a majority non-white. If it is not a lack of diversity, what is associated with police use of force and the number of police assaulted or murdered? Johnson shows it is the level of violent crime in the area.